The Dataset for Pretraining BERT

In [1]:
import os
import random
import torch
from d2l import torch as d2l

The WikiText-2 dataset

In [2]:
d2l.DATA_HUB['wikitext-2'] = (
    'https://s3.amazonaws.com/research.metamind.io/wikitext/'
    'wikitext-2-v1.zip', '3c914d17d80b1459be871a5039ac23e752a53cbe')

def _read_wiki(data_dir):
    file_name = os.path.join(data_dir, 'wiki.train.tokens')
    with open(file_name, 'r') as f:
        lines = f.readlines()
    paragraphs = [line.strip().lower().split(' . ')
                  for line in lines if len(line.split(' . ')) >= 2]
    random.shuffle(paragraphs)
    return paragraphs

Generating the Next Sentence Prediction Task

In [4]:
def _get_next_sentence(sentence, next_sentence, paragraphs):
    if random.random() < 0.5:
        is_next = True
    else:
        next_sentence = random.choice(random.choice(paragraphs))
        is_next = False
    return sentence, next_sentence, is_next

def _get_nsp_data_from_paragraph(paragraph, paragraphs, vocab, max_len):
    nsp_data_from_paragraph = []
    for i in range(len(paragraph) - 1):
        tokens_a, tokens_b, is_next = _get_next_sentence(
            paragraph[i], paragraph[i + 1], paragraphs)
        if len(tokens_a) + len(tokens_b) + 3 > max_len:
            continue
        tokens, segments = d2l.get_tokens_and_segments(tokens_a, tokens_b)
        nsp_data_from_paragraph.append((tokens, segments, is_next))
    return nsp_data_from_paragraph

Generating the Masked Language Modeling Task

In [6]:
def _replace_mlm_tokens(tokens, candidate_pred_positions, num_mlm_preds,
                        vocab):
    mlm_input_tokens = [token for token in tokens]
    pred_positions_and_labels = []
    random.shuffle(candidate_pred_positions)
    for mlm_pred_position in candidate_pred_positions:
        if len(pred_positions_and_labels) >= num_mlm_preds:
            break
        masked_token = None
        if random.random() < 0.8:
            masked_token = '<mask>'
        else:
            if random.random() < 0.5:
                masked_token = tokens[mlm_pred_position]
            else:
                masked_token = random.randint(0, len(vocab) - 1)
        mlm_input_tokens[mlm_pred_position] = masked_token
        pred_positions_and_labels.append(
            (mlm_pred_position, tokens[mlm_pred_position]))
    return mlm_input_tokens, pred_positions_and_labels

def _get_mlm_data_from_tokens(tokens, vocab):
    candidate_pred_positions = []
    for i, token in enumerate(tokens):
        if token in ['<cls>', '<sep>']:
            continue
        candidate_pred_positions.append(i)
    num_mlm_preds = max(1, round(len(tokens) * 0.15))
    mlm_input_tokens, pred_positions_and_labels = _replace_mlm_tokens(
        tokens, candidate_pred_positions, num_mlm_preds, vocab)
    pred_positions_and_labels = sorted(pred_positions_and_labels,
                                       key=lambda x: x[0])
    pred_positions = [v[0] for v in pred_positions_and_labels]
    mlm_pred_labels = [v[1] for v in pred_positions_and_labels]
    return vocab[mlm_input_tokens], pred_positions, vocab[mlm_pred_labels]

Append the special “<mask>” tokens to the inputs

In [7]:
def _pad_bert_inputs(examples, max_len, vocab):
    max_num_mlm_preds = round(max_len * 0.15)
    all_token_ids, all_segments, valid_lens,  = [], [], []
    all_pred_positions, all_mlm_weights, all_mlm_labels = [], [], []
    nsp_labels = []
    for (token_ids, pred_positions, mlm_pred_label_ids, segments,
         is_next) in examples:
        all_token_ids.append(torch.tensor(token_ids + [vocab['<pad>']] * (
            max_len - len(token_ids)), dtype=torch.long))
        all_segments.append(torch.tensor(segments + [0] * (
            max_len - len(segments)), dtype=torch.long))
        valid_lens.append(torch.tensor(len(token_ids), dtype=torch.float32))
        all_pred_positions.append(torch.tensor(pred_positions + [0] * (
            max_num_mlm_preds - len(pred_positions)), dtype=torch.long))
        all_mlm_weights.append(
            torch.tensor([1.0] * len(mlm_pred_label_ids) + [0.0] * (
                max_num_mlm_preds - len(pred_positions)),
                dtype=torch.float32))
        all_mlm_labels.append(torch.tensor(mlm_pred_label_ids + [0] * (
            max_num_mlm_preds - len(mlm_pred_label_ids)), dtype=torch.long))
        nsp_labels.append(torch.tensor(is_next, dtype=torch.long))
    return (all_token_ids, all_segments, valid_lens, all_pred_positions,
            all_mlm_weights, all_mlm_labels, nsp_labels)

The WikiText-2 dataset for pretraining BERT

In [8]:
class _WikiTextDataset(torch.utils.data.Dataset):
    def __init__(self, paragraphs, max_len):
        paragraphs = [d2l.tokenize(
            paragraph, token='word') for paragraph in paragraphs]
        sentences = [sentence for paragraph in paragraphs
                     for sentence in paragraph]
        self.vocab = d2l.Vocab(sentences, min_freq=5, reserved_tokens=[
            '<pad>', '<mask>', '<cls>', '<sep>'])
        examples = []
        for paragraph in paragraphs:
            examples.extend(_get_nsp_data_from_paragraph(
                paragraph, paragraphs, self.vocab, max_len))
        examples = [(_get_mlm_data_from_tokens(tokens, self.vocab)
                      + (segments, is_next))
                     for tokens, segments, is_next in examples]
        (self.all_token_ids, self.all_segments, self.valid_lens,
         self.all_pred_positions, self.all_mlm_weights,
         self.all_mlm_labels, self.nsp_labels) = _pad_bert_inputs(
            examples, max_len, self.vocab)

    def __getitem__(self, idx):
        return (self.all_token_ids[idx], self.all_segments[idx],
                self.valid_lens[idx], self.all_pred_positions[idx],
                self.all_mlm_weights[idx], self.all_mlm_labels[idx],
                self.nsp_labels[idx])

    def __len__(self):
        return len(self.all_token_ids)

Download and WikiText-2 dataset and generate pretraining examples

In [9]:
def load_data_wiki(batch_size, max_len):
    """Load the WikiText-2 dataset."""
    num_workers = d2l.get_dataloader_workers()
    data_dir = d2l.download_extract('wikitext-2', 'wikitext-2')
    paragraphs = _read_wiki(data_dir)
    train_set = _WikiTextDataset(paragraphs, max_len)
    train_iter = torch.utils.data.DataLoader(train_set, batch_size,
                                        shuffle=True, num_workers=num_workers)
    return train_iter, train_set.vocab

Print out the shapes of a minibatch of BERT pretraining examples

In [10]:
batch_size, max_len = 512, 64
train_iter, vocab = load_data_wiki(batch_size, max_len)

for (tokens_X, segments_X, valid_lens_x, pred_positions_X, mlm_weights_X,
     mlm_Y, nsp_y) in train_iter:
    print(tokens_X.shape, segments_X.shape, valid_lens_x.shape,
          pred_positions_X.shape, mlm_weights_X.shape, mlm_Y.shape,
          nsp_y.shape)
    break
torch.Size([512, 64]) torch.Size([512, 64]) torch.Size([512]) torch.Size([512, 10]) torch.Size([512, 10]) torch.Size([512, 10]) torch.Size([512])
In [11]:
len(vocab)
Out[11]:
20256